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1911 Census

What is a Census?

A census is a count of the inhabitants of a country. Details are recorded for every member of the population, including their age, sex and occupation. In the UK a census is usually taken every 10 years -- the census taken in 1801 is regarded as the first national census. This census was no more than a basic headcount, and recorded no names. With each subsequent census the information collection became more sophisticated, with more information noted and a more detailed breakdown of the information

The 1911 Census

The 1911 census is a record of everyone who lived in England and Wales in 1911 -- including all the residents of Pettaugh. It provides a unique snapshot of the village 100 years ago,and makes for very interesting reading! A census was taken every ten years from

The 1911 census data was released earlier in 2011 (The Government keeps all census data 'secret' for 100 years, so the 1911 census data is the latest available to the public), and makes for interesting reading. The size of families, the overcrowding with large families in small cottages, the large number of men employed in 'farm work', infant mortality, the 14 and 15-year old girls 'in servive' -- all these details of Pewttaugh lives are exposed in the statistics. In 1911 there were more members of the Page family than any other, and there are still Pages in the village today!

The 1911 census was the first to be completed by the householder who had to provide names, ages and occupations of the inhabitants, plus the length of marriage, the number of children of that marriage, how many of those children were still living and how many had died. In Pettaugh many of the houses had three or four rooms only, likely to be a small kitchen or scullery, one living room and one or two bedrooms, and were frequently overcrowded.

The surviving 1911 census pages consist of the original household pages and the enumerators’ summary books.  The household schedules were the forms completed by each household. Every person who stayed in the house that night (household members and guests) in theory was included on the form.  Enumerators’ summary books (ESBs) were the books completed by each enumerator from the information provided in the household schedules.  The ESBs contain summaries of several households on one page — usually on the same street.

The 1911 census for England and Wales was taken on the night of Sunday 2 April, 1911. The count included all individual households, plus institutions such as prisons, workhouses, naval vessels and merchant vessels, and it also attempted to make an approximate count of the homeless.

What is in the 1911 census?

In common with the censuses that preceded it, it recorded the following information:

  • Where an individual lived
  • Their age at the time of the census
  • Who they were living with
  • Their place of birth
  • Occupation

Also, depending on an individual’s circumstances, additional information could include:

  • Who their guests were on the night of the census
  • The number of servants they had (if any)
  • Whether they were an employee or employer
  • Details of nationality
  • Duration of current marriage

The world in 1911

The 1911 census was taken at a time of rapid change, both in Britain and the rest of the world. International politics was becoming increasingly turbulent as relatively young nations such as Germany and America underwent rapid industrialisation, and Japan’s economic power grew after the end of 200 years of isolation in 1853. All posed a threat to Britain’s economic supremacy, which was reflected in an increasing sense of nationalism both in Britain and abroad that was to culminate in World War I.

Great Britain in 1911

British industry suffered a year of industrial unrest with several strikes in key industries, such as shipping, mining, and the railways. There was also political unrest, with a political power struggle between The Liberals and Conservatives over Asquith’s programme of social reform.

Life in 1911

  • Life expectancy is 54 years for women and 50 for men
  • The average family has 2.8 children
  • Just over five percent of children aged 10 to 14 are in employment
  • The richest one percent of the population holds approximately 70 percent of the UK’s wealth
  • Electricity is available through a patchwork of small supply networks and the London Underground gets its first electric escalators. Earl's Court is the first tube station to benefit.
  • The UK is connected via a series of local telephone networks. Some wealthy homes have phones and telephone kiosks are available.

National events

The coronation of George V and Queen Mary - who would become the first of the Windsor monarchs - takes place at Westminster Abbey on 22 June.


  • The Liberal Prime Minister, Herbert Henry Asquith, is head of a minority government; David Lloyd George is Chancellor of the Exchequer. After a two year struggle, the Parliament Act is passed, which abolishes the right of veto in the House of Lords
  • The Commons vote to pay MPs a salary
  • Home Rule is given to Ireland, in return for the support of the Irish Nationalist Party in the Parliament Act.
  • The Official Secrets Act is passed
  • The 1911 National Insurance Act comes into force
  • The Manhood Suffrage bill is proposed, which would give the vote to all men but not to women. The bill does not become law
  • The movement for women’s suffrage gains momentum, culminating in a mass boycott of the 1911 census.

Arts and culture

  • The first edition of the Concise Oxford English Dictionary is published, 18 years ahead of the final instalment of the complete OED
  • The UK cinema industry is in its first years; people can watch films at cinema chains such as The Rex
  • In the UK, 16 male artists including Walter Sickert, Augustus John and Henry Lamb form the Camden Town Group
  • In Europe, Cubist artists continue their experiments with abstraction. Picasso produces Ma Jolie and Georges Braque paints The Portugese.  
  • In May, Edward Elgar conducts the premiere of his Symphony No.2 in London
  • The song Any Old Iron is published


  • In football, Manchester United win the 1910-11 First Division title
  • The American Jack Johnson is world heavyweight boxing champion
  • In golf, Harry Vardon wins the British open.


In January 1911, three policemen are killed and two injured after trying to arrest a group of Latvian anarchists trying to break into a jeweller’s shop. The event becomes notorious when the gang hold off 300 police in the ‘Siege of Sydney Street’. Winston Churchill, the Home Secretary, attends the scene and refuses to let the Fire Brigade intervene when the building catches fire. Two bodies are found, but a mythical third man, ‘Peter the Painter’, escapes.

OK, so that's the 'big picture', but what of Pettaugh?  Go to  Pettaugh in 1911 and 2011


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